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V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

现金贷咋成了“陷阱贷”

2017-10-30 16:33  来源:人民网-人民日报

利率超高,暴力催收,乱象不断

现金贷咋成了“陷阱贷”

  近日,一款名为“现金贷”的小额、短期线上金融产品引发广泛关注和质疑,无牌照滥放贷款、动辄500%的超高利率、暴力催收、泄露用户隐私等行业乱象不断爆出。

  现金贷到底是金融创新,还是披着马甲的线上高利贷“陷阱”?蕴含哪些风险?未来该如何监管?

  隐蔽收费名目繁多,高额利率远超法律红线

  “3秒完成借款”“凭身份证1分钟申请”……打开手机APP商店输入“现金贷”字样,各种平台诱人的宣传语扑面而来。现金贷通常放款金额在500元至2000元,期限7天至30天。

  “市场上各种现金贷平台有几千家,很多都是P2P平台转型而来的,也有不少新成立的,因为这个行业挣钱,可以说是暴利?!币患蚁纸鸫教诓咳耸肯蚣钦咄嘎?,现在这一行业的综合借款利率都很高,年化利率别说是500%,甚至1000%的都有。

  按照2015年9月1日起施行的《最高人民法院关于审理民间借贷案件适用法律若干问题的规定》,如果借贷双方约定利率超过年利率36%,则超过部分的利息应当被认定无效。

  记者调查发现,为了规避这一法律红线,国内的现金贷平台通常用隐蔽的方式加到借款人身上,比如手续费、快速信审费、账户管理费等名目。

  记者在现金贷平台“钱站”APP的一款“先花钱”产品上看到,一笔7天期的1000元借款,虽然利息只要1.05元,但还要收取信息认证费、风控服务费等总共96.95元,实际到账金额仅为903.05元。

  更受诟病的是现金贷平台收取的高额逾期滞纳金。记者在“钱站”上看到,有一款“现金侠”的产品,逾期1天要收取滞纳金20元,也就是说一笔1000元的借款,只要逾期50天还款金额就要翻倍。

  上海百良律师事务所主任王冰指出,除了收取高额利息和滞纳金,部分现金贷平台还对逾期借款人采取暴力催收手段。此外,记者采访发现,有的现金贷平台完全无视消费者权益?;?,用户信息泄露严重。

  服务无征信记录人群,潜藏金融风险

  据星合资本对20多万名已借款客户的相关数据进行分析,近40%的现金贷用户月收入在5000元以下,主要为20岁到30岁、相对低学历的年轻群体,这些小额资金除了用于消费外,还用于临时交话费、缴税、资金周转等急用场景。

  区域分布上,借款人数超过万人的省份有5个,广东省以3.5万名借款人遥遥领先,浙江、江苏、福建、四川四省的用户数均超过1万人。

  星合资本董事长郭宇航指出,银行的风控基于央行征信,但是中国有好几亿人没有征信记录。而且目前月收入在5000元以下的网民中,至少2.4亿人没有信用卡,他们全都是现金贷的潜在用户。

  然而,这部分借贷人群的特点,也注定了现金贷潜藏金融风险。百服金融发布的报告显示,56.5%的客户申请现金贷次数大于2次,其中申请2到5次的客户比例最高,达到36.7%。申请多次借款的客户中,在多家机构申请借款的人数占比达49.4%。

  招银前海金融的报告指出,多头借贷用户的信贷逾期风险是普通客户的3到4倍,贷款申请者每多申请一家机构,违约的概率就上升20%。一旦经济下行压力加大,当行业出现大面积的多头借贷和过度授信时,也有可能成为爆发债务?;牡蓟鹚?。

  “现金贷属于消费贷的一种,有一定市场基础,但同时也要加强监管?!鄙虾4笱Э萍冀鹑谘芯克彼っ咸硭?。

  疏堵结合,让现金贷运行在阳光下

  针对现金贷规模扩张迅猛,央行金融市场司司长纪志宏28日表示,下一步将按照实质重于形式的原则,实施穿透式监管。

  “采取疏堵并举等措施,加强对现金贷的整治,已经迫在眉睫?!敝泄嗣翊笱е匮艚鹑谘芯吭焊呒堆芯吭倍m抵赋?,一方面,对于经营失序、管理混乱的现金贷平台,未能按照规定通过备案的,要采取措施坚决予以退出。与此同时,金融监管部门还要加强与公安、法院等部门合作,对诱骗诈骗、违规放贷、非法催债的,由司法机关及时介入,形成高压态势。

  加强监管之外,郭宇航认为,终结现金贷乱象的办法之一就是让这一金融产品在阳光下运行,进行持牌管理。

  业内人士建议,建立准入制度,在工商登记环节明确现金贷的主体资格和经营范围要求,确立行业从业者的合法地位;建立适当的行业规范,对贷款利率、多头借贷、滚动续贷等突出问题进行限制。

  苏宁金融研究院特约研究员江翰认为,现在信用卡服务无法覆盖所有消费人群,而80后、90后又习惯借贷消费、分期偿还,因此现金贷的管控关键点要放在消费场景上,加强对消费者购买流程和贷款用途的跟踪。

 ?。ň菪禄缟虾?0月29日电 记者王淑娟、桑彤)

编辑:钟雅欢
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