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花钱,你愿意“分期”吗?

2017-10-27 11:33  来源:人民日报

  十九大报告提出,要贯彻新发展理念,建设现代化经济体系。

  在这方面,完善促进消费的体制机制,增强消费对经济发展的基础性作用,是一项重要内容。近些年,消费已经取代投资成为经济增长的第一拉动力,这背后,技术手段带来的支付方式革新功不可没,分期消费就是其中之一?!盎魈斓那?,享受今天的资源”,无论是数码电子、家电家具等生活消费,还是培训、旅游、娱乐等服务消费,分期消费的触角已经延伸到生活的各个方面。

  分期消费真的能让人们轻松超前享受生活吗?面对井喷式增长的网络分期平台,消费者该如何理性分期、用好分期?

  市场有多火?

  “不夸张地说,我周围90%以上的大学同学都用过分期消费,衣食住行、休闲娱乐都可以通过分期消费解决”

  “家里有了小孩,对环境卫生要求比较高。我家的英国戴森吸尘器,就是用京东白条搞定的。我经常在京东购物,用优惠券可以免付分期利息,这一年分期下来,比使用银行信用卡要经济得多?!北本┠炒笮凸笤惫ず乱莺绞蔷┒滋醯挠吊?,用他的话说,“分期消费,让青春不留白”的宣传口号很吸引年轻人,“先购物,后付款”“30天免息,随心分期”的服务让生活消费零障碍,“分期消费太爽了!”

  减少了一次性付款的压力,“分期消费”这种轻松的购物体验让人身心愉悦。郝逸航说,苹果公司即将推出的iPhone X,他也打算分期买,既不会造成经济压力,还能跟上潮流。分期消费能让每个月工资多元化使用,满足了更多消费新需求。

  申请方式灵活、申请手续便捷、无需抵押担保、审批核准速度快,分期消费凭借这些特点迅速赢得年轻人青睐。以“90后”为代表的群体,成长于互联网快速发展的时代,对新技术、新事物、新产品的接受程度较高,追逐高效、享受当下是他们的主要消费观,这一群体是分期消费的主力军。

  “不夸张地说,我周围90%以上的大学同学都用过分期消费,衣食住行、休闲娱乐都可以通过分期消费解决?!蓖跖羰潜本┠炒笱У拇笕?,早在刚入学的时候,他便开始使用分期消费,感觉很方便。

  “今年,我报名托福培训班的钱就是用分期解决的。一个托福班要3万多元,直接向父母要,我有点张不开口。用了分期平台后,每个月我会从生活费中拿出一部分钱按期还款。虽然有一些利息,但我认为很值得?!蓖跖羲?,分期消费在大学生中很普遍,大到购买电脑手机、教育培训,小到话费充值、电影购票,他们都喜欢选择分期。

  这两年,分期消费平台发展火爆,特别是“互联网+分期消费”平台弥补了传统金融行业的不足,服务其原来未能覆盖的群体。最近,行业迎来“正规军”,银行重新回归校园分期消费信贷领域,市场正在逐渐规范。据相关机构预测,过去5年,分期消费借款规模年均增速超过20%。

  诱惑有多大?

  一些商户故意弱化中介费用,打着“低门槛,零利息,零首付”的噱头诱导消费者,而产品背后的手续费、服务费实际上比利息还高

  “明明就买了一个5799元的手机,可最后还款却多了1700多元,等于这手机我花了近8000元买的。虽然提前一年多用上了手机,但也付出了代价?!彼灯鸱制谙?,安徽合肥某餐厅厨师赵晓贤颇感无奈,“像我这样没有稳定收入的打工人员,办理银行信用卡很难,网上商家忽悠我说分期消费门槛低,手续便捷,利息低??墒亲詈笠凰?,各项手续费比利息还高?!?/p>

  中国人民大学重阳金融研究院高级研究员董希淼认为,分期消费市场发展速度很快,但鱼龙混杂,良莠不齐,很多服务存在虚假宣传的现象。消费平台开展分期业务的主要目的在于拓展用户进行分期消费,但是拓展客户的方式主要来自线下,业务员为了业绩的需要,容易对消费者进行欺诈和诱导。一些商户故意弱化中介费用,基本上都会打着“低门槛,零利息,零首付”的噱头诱导消费者,而产品背后的手续费、服务费实际上比利息还高,让消费者如鲠在喉,有苦难言。

  “银行信用卡业务发展相对成熟,不论是银行自身的风控系统还是监管法规都已比较完善。但分期市场在激烈的竞争环境下虚假宣传、诱导推销等问题突出?!倍m邓?。

  传统商业银行的分期消费业务较规范,主要面对收入稳定的消费群体,消费者使用起来风险较低,也可有效保证自身权益。传统商业银行覆盖不到的市场空白激发了互联网分期平台崛起,这些平台门槛低,瞄准学生、打工者等社会群体。再加上监管政策滞后,分期消费的一些弊病也在不断显现。

  比如,分期平台不可避免地出现不合格消费者逾期违约现象。销售人员一般都会“先礼后兵”,但“催收”成效会与绩效挂钩,由于目前尚未出台规范化法治化的催收监管政策,使得现实中分期市场存在花样各异的暴力催收行为。

  个人信息的泄露风险,让分期消费存在安全隐患?!懊挥写钊词盏酱呤斩绦拧薄懊挥凶⒉崛幢幻懊⒉帷笔遣簧偃擞龅焦睦?。多数人会选择置之不理,但这样做可能会影响到消费者的征信,给生活和工作带来不便。

  另外,从消费者自身角度来看,分期消费让非理性消费行为增多。分期消费时付款数额减小,令人有一种花费较少的错觉。不少平台的风险监控措施不到位,也容易导致不合格消费者逾期违约等信用问题。

  选择有多难?

  通过数字化的管理与信息共享手段,加强信用体系建设,防止多头借贷。消费者应当摒弃虚荣、攀比、盲从心理

  在分期消费火爆的背后,如何才能理性用好分期消费、管好分期消费?

  董希淼认为,从监管者的角度看,应继续深入开展互联网金融专项整治工作,加大对各类分期消费平台的清理和整顿。对于经营失序、管理混乱的平台,未能按照规定通过备案的,要采取措施坚决予以关闭。

  “目前我国征信市场仍需要进一步完善,行业多头借贷问题还没有完全得到解决,相信未来实现国家级层面的征信数据共享之后,整个行业将更加健康有序地发展?!倍m邓?。

  征信数据是分期消费平台风险控制的重要环节。像淘宝、京东、携程等掌握亿量级用户消费场景的公司,用户基数大,数据资源多,可以敏锐捕捉到用户征信程度,风控成本较低。而其他金融平台很难精准判断消费者的征信“脸谱”。

  “现在对于分期消费,我们很大的精力要放在风险防控上,可以说,风控做得好,运营成本就会降低,平台分期消费利率也就相应降低,从而吸引更多的优质客户?!狈制诶稚坛枪刈芗喔呤ニ?,“比如,我们现在利用人工智能技术研发的‘鹰眼’智能风控引擎拥有6000多个风控模型数据变量,可以大幅提高风控审核效率?!?/p>

  董希淼建议,加强信用基础设施建设,通过数字化的管理与信息共享手段,夯实和丰富征信体系,提高分期消费业务的风险识别能力和风险防范效率,使机构和客户享受到普惠金融的更多便利。

  银行和互联网平台应进一步完善或建立自己的风险测评和监控体系,客观评估用户的消费水平,合理设置授信额度;分期消费业务机构和平台应正确进行营销宣传,杜绝虚假宣传、诱导宣传,并设立必要的惩?;?。

  对消费者来说,要在银行信用卡和鱼龙混杂的分期付款平台之间谨慎选择,尽量选管理体制比较正规完善的银行信用卡消费。如果选择互联网分期消费平台,应仔细核对分期消费利息、手续费、服务费等如何计算等情况,防止被收取高利息、高服务费。

  “分期消费是一种预支付形式,如果逾期还款,不但会增加滞纳利息,影响自己的征信度,甚至有些金融机构会终止分期业务?!倍m邓?,消费者应摒弃虚荣、攀比、盲从的不良心态,仔细权衡物品购买是否合理,制定合理的消费和还款计划,避免超前消费和过度消费。

  业内人士认为,对于经营相对规范的平台,要采取“同一业务,同一监管”的原则,实施穿透式监管,维护好金融消费者合法权益,?;じ鋈诵畔踩?。同时,对其提供的分期业务,在借贷用途、资金流向等方面加强监测。消费者还应增强风险意识,加强金融消费和网络安全知识的学习,不随意泄露个人信息,提高甄别和防范不良商家的能力。

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