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河源:非遗进城,“文明碎片”活色生香

2017-10-23 10:01  来源:河源日报

  非物质文化遗产,是人类文明的活化石。这些穿越时空隧道存续至今的“文明碎片”,是先人最宝贵的馈赠之一。河源是岭南文化发祥地之一,是“客家古邑”,客家人慎终追远的品德,赋予了非物质文化遗产更多的存续空间。如何才能让这些幸存在河源的“文明碎片”获得长久的生命力?担负着河源市?;ず图せ罘且攀姑氖形幕?,近年来在铸造文化生态上做了大量工作,取得的成效可圈可点。

  摸清家底,拼接“文明碎片”

  河源市众多非遗项目,都是一块“文明碎片”,拼接“文明碎片”、传承客家文化,对河源市文化馆来说是一项意义深远的工作。从2007年起,河源开始着手建立市、县两级非物质文化遗产名录?;せ?。2008年6月,成立了河源市非物质文化遗产?;ぶ行?。2010年,市委、市政府将非遗?;び肟⒐ぷ髂扇搿逗釉词薪ㄉ栉幕釉垂婊僖?011-2020年)》,明确要求实施文化遗产?;び肟⒐こ?。同时,市、县区两级设立文化遗产?;ぷㄏ钭式?。对省级以上非遗项目还出台了?;ぜ苹?,河源市政府还对重点非遗项目和传习基地给予适当经费补贴,为市级传承人发放了经费补贴。

  目前,河源市市级以上非物质文化遗产名录共89项,其中民间美术1项,传统戏曲5项,传统音乐4项,传统舞蹈21项,传统技艺32项,杂技与竞技6项,民俗18项,民间文学2项,列入国家级非物质文化遗产名录2项、省级非物质文化遗产名录10项;市级以上非物质文化遗产名录代表性传承人94人,其中列入国家级代表性传承人1人,省级代表性传承人13人。

  此外,河源市文化部门还编辑出版了《河源市文化遗产汇编》《浰江船谣》《席床生日节》《山歌当酒唱长河》《花朝戏普及手册》《忠信花灯与吊灯习俗》等书籍,为“非遗”的?;ず痛刑峁┝吮蟮睦纷柿?。值得一提的是,2016年出版的《河源市非物质文化遗产名录图典》,集学术性、知识性、文献性于一体,以图文声像的形式,详细介绍了河源非物质文化遗产的传承区域、历史渊源、表现形式、文化价值及传承现状等,堪称河源“非遗”数据库。

  活化非遗,传承客家文化

  在摸清全市非遗家底的同时,河源加大对“非遗”项目的传承?;すぷ?,成立了首批共16个非遗传习基地,在这16个非遗项目所在地文化馆或乡镇文化站各安排60平方米以上场地,统一标识挂牌,作为非遗传习场地,并由文化部门组织当地非遗代表性项目传承人就近开展传承、授徒、培训、交流活动。市文化馆在二楼设立河源市非物质文化遗产展示厅,展厅占地500平方米,用来展示河源市各级非遗名录代表项目,以实物、图文等形式,展示河源市丰富的非物质文化遗产,全方位开展非遗项目的活态传承活动。

  近年来,河源市非遗中心举办了市级以上传承人培训班,请中山大学非遗专家教授、省非遗中心老师前来授课;与东莞市开展城际非遗文化交流活动,把非遗传承人和项目带出去;组织省级项目参加文化遗产日广东分会场展示展览以及佛山秋色大型非遗展示等活动,得到了较好的推广和社会反响。

  非遗?;?,重在传承。非遗青黄不接的状况,也是众所周知的。为把河源市优秀传统民间艺术一代一代地传承下去,市非遗中心配合各县文化部门开展了非遗进校园活动,有选择性地将各种民间艺术融入校园。目前,市文化馆对忠信花灯和紫金花朝戏两个国家级非遗项目都开展了进校园传承活动,市区的中小学,也开展了客家山歌进校园活动。

  请非遗进城,为文化赋能

  如何创新非遗的传承?;ば问?,为客家传统文化赋予新的能量,让非遗焕发生机,融入河源人的日常生活?河源的办法是请非遗进城。

  2012年,第二届中国客家文化节民间巡游活动在河源市区举行,河源市非遗项目近千名演员参加了巡游活动,壮观的场面、独特的文化,给河源市民留下深刻印象,非遗项目从此粉墨登场,正式步入槎城文化舞台,使其更加深入人心。

  非遗 这个在10年前对河源人显得十分陌生和费解的词语,如今正逐渐从专家学者的书籍讲卷中走向社会,融入百姓的寻常生活。

  此外,河源部分非遗表演项目还参加了“广东省首届花灯文化节”“金秋客家山歌擂台赛”等各类交流活动,获得了省内外观众的广泛好评。

  非遗正在融入河源人民的日常生活。在和平县阳明第一小学,板凳龙、客家山歌、碟子舞这些植根于当地的非物质文化遗产,正受到越来越多学生的青睐。该校每星期有两个下午定期开展传授非遗的课外活动,在校园内都会听到《月光光》《爱唱山歌你就来》这些经典客家山歌。目前,该校已经成立了板凳龙舞蹈队、百灵鸟客家山歌队、碟子舞等艺术培训班,还相继成立了各种其他艺术兴趣小组,参加的学生有800多人次。

  在每年的全国“文化遗产日” 期间,河源市文化部门都会举办客家山歌系列赛、非物质文化遗产档案图片展览、非物质文化遗产展演等系列宣传活动。非遗正以一种更开放、更多样的方式,走进寻常百姓的生活。

  在2017年春节举办的首届“非遗闹新春”演出活动中,以衣食住玩等活动为辅助,每天吸引了大量市民前来动口又动手。牛肉丸、酿鸭饭、牛筋糕等,让市民大快朵颐;泥鸡泥鸭、木鱼木鸡则吸引了不少小孩子把玩、研究。忠信花灯、明清纺织传统技艺·墩头蓝纺织、猫头狮、席床生日节等摊档皆有不少中年人前往欣赏观看,并忍不住动手体验一番。广场舞台还有非遗节目表演,也让人们应接不暇,紫金木偶戏、龙川手擎木偶戏、感情丰沛的客家山歌等,都让市民享受到非遗所带来的无穷乐趣。(凌丽 周焕)

编辑:钟雅欢

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