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国家级非物质文化遗产:东河戏

2017-10-10 16:43  来源:综合网络

  东河戏是在江西省赣州市东河片地区高腔的基础上,逐步融合了昆曲、宜黄调、桂剧、安庆剧、弋板、南北调、秧歌调等,发展成拥有高、昆、弹三大声腔较为完整的地方戏曲剧种。因其形成于赣州东面贡水流域,故称东河戏。东河戏中的乱弹腔首先将自己的观众定位于下层百姓,非常具有地方特色,实际也证明它受到人民的热烈欢迎。

  2014年11月11日,东河戏经国务院批准列入第四批国家级非物质文化遗产名录。

  表演形式

  东河戏是江西赣南古老的地方剧种之一,因发源于赣南贡江流域故称东河戏。

  东河戏初名赣州大戏,它集高腔、昆腔、乱弹多种声腔于一身,起源于赣县境内的田村、白鹭、清溪、劳田和睦埠(今属兴国县)一带。赣江是江西最大的河流,而赣江的上游是由章水、贡水汇合而成的,章、贡二水分别处于赣州西、东两侧,故当地人习称西河与东河,赣县属于东河流域,所以从那里起源的戏剧也称为东河戏。

  艺术特点

  东河戏班社多为班主制,由有衣箱(戏衣所有权的人为班主,主持入社的人通常称为“老包”。他们有的自己有衣箱,有的向别人租来衣箱;有的自己能演戏,也有不会演戏的;有一人独当,也有几人合伙的。演员工资(以民国初为例)最高每年180元,最低80-0(银元);也有以“工分”计算的,最高800分,最低300-400分。班社免费供给米、柴、盐,各人自备油、菜。班社成员一般30-40人,除“老包”外,管班(联络)、伙头(炊事员),大衣、二衣、盔巾、杂箱、走杂各一人,乐队最多七、八人(通常只用四五人),余为演员。头目(最好的)老生负责拟定角色和演出节目及其顺序。

  东河戏舞台语音以中州韵为基础,杂以客家官话,本剧种人称为赣州官话。其声平仄略与普通话相反:反之亦然,如“街坊”近如普通话的“解放”;“背景”近如普通话的“北京”。丑行有时纯用地方语音插笠打诨。昆腔戏唱叶音略近“吴音”。

  东河戏中的乱弹腔首先将自己的观众定位于下层百姓,非常具有地方特色,实际也证明它受到人民的热烈欢迎。至此东河戏酌发展历程基本完善,它糅合高腔、昆腔与乱弹腔为一体,是一个真正意义上的“三腔合一”的剧种,三种声腔齐头并进,异彩纷呈,各有所长,各有绝技,多有独特的表现手法,具有深厚的群众基础。

  东河戏未设立过自己的笠班。历代艺人多个别拜师、跟班学艺;少数出身于祁剧班社所办的笠班。学徒进班初期,必须自带伙食费,学会“跳刘?!保ā洞蟀讼伞分械囊桓鐾尥藿巧┌嗌缈擅夥压┓?;能在台上讲一言半语,便可领到菜金;能龙套、探子、走脚报信,就有少数工资。一般是三年跟师,三年帮师,前后六年中所得工资,都归师傅所有,本人只能得到师傅给予的少数零用钱。

  传统剧目

  东河戏传统剧目在1950年以前保存有一千余种,代表剧目有《雷峰塔》、《挽发记》、《玉簪记》、《扫秦》等。东河戏团除上演传统剧目外,挖掘、整理、新排了不少剧目。中央苏区时,还改编了不少东河剧现代革命剧目,如《活捉张辉瓒》、《送郎当红军》、《木兰从军》等,影响很大,风靡一时[3] 。东河戏的剧目,高腔主要演弋阳腔连台大戏,如《目连传》、《三国传》、《封神传》、《铁树传》等。昆腔整本戏有《金印记》、《金雀记》、《渔家乐》等,皮簧戏在东河戏中占多数,如《九江为王》等。高腔的《双斗猴》,皮簧的《九江为王》等剧目,在其他剧种中已很少见。

  传承意义

  古老而独特的赣州东河戏,是客家先贤创造的戏剧艺术财富。它丰富多彩、风格独特、可塑性强、乡土气息浓郁、立足农村的表演形式,赢得了不同层次观众的青睐。在赣州东河一带的乡村中,仍然保留着众多民间东河戏班,在传统节日和婚丧嫁娶时,人们都会邀请戏班唱上几台大戏。

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