[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120] [121] [122] [123] [124] [125] [126] [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] [133] [134] [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162] [163] [164] [165] [166] [167] [168] [169] [170] [171] [172] [173] [174] [175] [176] [177] [178] [179] [180] [181] [182] [183] [184] [185] [186] [187] [188] [189] [190] [191] [192] [193] [194] [195] [196] [197] [198] [199] [200] [201] [202] [203] [204] [205] [206] [207] [208] [209] [210] [211] [212] [213] [214] [215] [216] [217] [218] [219] [220] [221] [222] [223] [224] [225] [226] [227] [228] [229] [230] [231] [232] [233] [234] [235] [236] [237] [238] [239] [240] [241] [242] [243] [244] [245] [246] [247] [248] [249] [250] [251] [252] [253] [254] [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] [260] [261] [262] [263] [264] [265] [266] [267] [268] [269] [270] [271] [272] [273] [274] [275] [276] [277] [278] [279] [280] [281] [282] [283] [284] [285] [286] [287] [288] [289] [290] [291] [292] [293] [294] [295] [296] [297] [298] [299] [300] [301] [302] [303] [304] [305] [306] [307] [308] [309] [310] [311] [312] [313] [314] [315] [316] [317] [318] [319] [320] [321] [322] [323] [324] [325] [326] [327] [328] [329] [330] [331] [332] [333] [334] [335] [336] [337] [338] [339] [340] [341] [342] [343] [344] [345] [346] [347] [348] [349] [350] [351] [352] [353] [354] [355] [356] [357] [358] [359] [360] [361] [362] [363] [364] [365] [366] [367] [368] [369] [370] [371] [372] [373] [374] [375] [376] [377] [378] [379] [380] [381] [382] [383] [384] [385] [386] [387] [388] [389] [390] [391] [392] [393] [394] [395] [396] [397] [398] [399] [400] [401] [402] [403] [404] [405] [406] [407] [408] [409] [410] [411] [412] [413] [414] [415] [416] [417] [418] [419] [420] [421] [422] [423] [424] [425] [426] [427] [428] [429] [430] [431] [432] [433] [434] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120] [121] [122] [123] [124] [125] [126] [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] [133] [134] [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162] [163] [164] [165] [166] [167] [168] [169] [170] [171] [172] [173] [174] [175] [176] [177] [178] [179] [180] [181] [182] [183] [184] [185] [186] [187] [188] [189] [190] [191] [192] [193] [194] [195] [196] [197] [198] [199] [200] [201] [202] [203] [204] [205] [206] [207] [208] [209] [210] [211] [212] [213] [214] [215] [216] [217] [218] [219] [220] [221] [222] [223] [224] [225] [226] [227] [228] [229] [230] [231] [232] [233] [234] [235] [236] [237] [238] [239] [240] [241] [242] [243] [244] [245] [246] [247] [248] [249] [250] [251] [252] [253] [254] [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] [260] [261] [262] [263] [264] [265] [266] [267] [268] [269] [270] [271] [272] [273] [274] [275] [276] [277] [278] [279] [280] [281] [282] [283] [284] [285] [286] [287] [288] [289] [290] [291] [292] [293] [294] [295] [296] [297] [298] [299] [300] [301] [302] [303] [304] [305] [306] [307] [308] [309] [310] [311] [312] [313] [314] [315] [316] [317] [318] [319] [320] [321] [322] [323] [324] [325] [326] [327] [328] [329] [330] [331] [332] [333] [334] [335] [336] [337] [338] [339] [340] [341] [342] [343] [344] [345] [346] [347] [348] [349] [350] [351] [352] [353] [354] [355] [356] [357] [358] [359] [360] [361] [362] [363] [364] [365] [366] [367] [368] [369] [370] [371] [372] [373] [374] [375] [376] [377] [378] [379] [380] [381] [382] [383] [384] [385] [386] [387] [388] [389] [390] [391] [392] [393] [394] [395] [396] [397] [398] [399] [400] [401] [402] [403] [404] [405] [406] [407] [408] [409] [410] [411] [412] [413] [414] [415] [416] [417] [418] [419] [420] [421] [422] [423] [424] [425] [426] [427] [428] [429] [430] [431] [432] [433] [434] [435] [436] [437] [438] [439] [440] [441] [442] [443] [444] [445] [446] [447] [448] [449] [450] [451] [452] [453] [454] [455] [456] [457] [458] [459] [460] [461] [462] [463] [464] [465] [466] [467] [468] [469] [470] [471] [472] [473] [474] [475] [476] [477] [478] [479] [480] [481] [482] [483] [484] [485] [486] [487] [488] [489] [490] [491] [492] [493] [494] [495] [496] [497] [498] [499] [500] [501] V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

万载花灯戏:传统民俗表演“变身”赣剧瑰宝

2017-09-29 17:08  来源:江西晨报

  万载花灯戏原名花鼓灯,迄今已有300多年的历史,是江西省万载县的汉族戏曲剧种之一,属于花灯戏的代表。早在明末清初,赣南的大批移民居于万载山区,带来了早期的赣南采茶戏——灯戏,与万载当地的“花鼓灯”糅合,每逢节日,山区居民“白天耍灯,夜间唱戏”。

  花灯与采茶戏的惊艳融合

  万载花灯戏走过了数百年漫长的历程,是一个多姿多彩、载歌载舞、富有浓郁乡土气息的地方古老剧种。万载花灯是万载花灯戏的源头。兴盛时,几乎全县大多数村落都有1~3支花灯队,花灯成为百姓喜闻乐见的一种艺术表现形式。明代中后期,不少花灯队跨乡串村,留宿接灯人家,晚上围炉作乐,坐唱小曲,从而催生了万载花灯戏的萌芽,并为其形成奠定了广泛的群众基础。

  明末清初,大量赣南移民迁入万载定居,带来了早期的赣南采茶戏——灯戏。万载花灯逐渐吸纳灯戏,每逢节日,“白天耍灯,晚上唱戏”。据了解,万载花灯戏属于采茶戏中路唱腔的一支,万载花灯戏班社所供奉的戏神是赣南采茶戏的老师傅“三伯公”。

  清乾隆年间(公元1736~1795年),万载不少灯队开始向表演灯戏过渡,从耍新年、闹元宵扩展到各种节日都有灯队表演。在表演形式上,除耍灯之外,兼有“一丑一旦”、“一生一旦”的“对子戏”或全“四旦”的歌舞节目,这种以“灯”带“戏”,不用舞台,只在平地演出的形式俗称“踩地老鼠”,是万载花灯戏形成的最初阶段,也称为“灯戏”阶段。

  由“三角班”发展到“八角头”

  据清道光年间的《万载县志》记载,乾隆四十七年(公元1782年)前后,万载高村进士李荣陛曾作灯戏二绝句:“百戏同民自九重,筑场如砥演鱼龙。升平一例萧韶曲,瓦釜何曾羡鼓钟?!闭瓜至说葡繁硌菀帐醯镊攘?,又曰:“弯角篱边取道来,农官腾箠牧童催。三时劳苦一旬戏,耕法频将诱稚孩?!泵枋龅葡芬焉钊胙俺0傩丈?。

  当时,万载灯戏由于受到邻县瑞河、袁河等大班的影响,发展成有小生、小旦、小丑的“三角班”。乾隆以后,“三角班”由平地演唱到登上临时搭制的草台演出,逐渐脱离灯彩,专演小戏,进入集镇,与当时流行的阳戏(提线木偶戏)、瑞河、袁河等大班争鸣斗妍。

  到了清末民初,阳戏已在万载逐渐萧条,瑞河、袁河大班也日见衰落,唯有万载花灯戏凭借其表现的内容多为底层人民的生活、劳动与爱情为群众所喜爱,并逐步发展成“半班”。行当由“三角班”发展为“八角头”,即老生、老旦、大花、小花(丑)、生巾(小生)、姬生(正旦)、烟花旦、彩旦。从此,万载灯戏开始演出故事情节较强的本戏,在声腔与表演等方面有很大发展,把花灯、民歌、小调与赣南采茶融为一体,并和高安丝弦戏兼收并蓄,逐渐形成了一种独具特色、深受群众喜爱的地方戏曲剧种。

  “无花灯不成村”

  据万载县文化馆左仁吉介绍,民国时期,万载新出现了六七个专业的花鼓灯戏班,如康乐镇高秉均的“鸿福堂”,马步乡王生发的“金福堂”,茭湖乡易花子的“幸庆堂”等,新桥下汪锦松的“锦伢班”、马步乡龙成生的“顺利班”、双桥镇柳包元的“德胜班”,高城镇闻长庚的“合盛班”等。

  此外,白良乡、三兴镇、万岁桥村、芦洲村、双桥镇、鹅峰乡在上世纪三四十年代还出现了十来个“林宝班”“德业班”之类的季节性、业余性花鼓灯小戏班。这些花鼓灯戏班就地取材,带着几台“小曲”(小戏)游走于万载城乡各地,上门闹墟、赶集,为百姓带去欢乐。

  歌、舞、技演绎传奇戏本

  万载花灯戏的剧目分为小曲、小戏、本戏和连台本戏四类。小曲曲目繁多,系灯戏阶段节目,内容简单,表演歌舞化;小戏多为表现男女爱情、反映劳动生活、揭示伦理道德,妙趣横生,美仑美奂;本戏和连台本戏大多源自民间故事及传奇,情节曲折,引人入胜。

  在表演技巧上,万载花灯戏主张“歌、舞、技”三者并重,讲究虚拟夸张,形象逼真。其音乐有“传统声腔”和“新腔”两大类。在传统声腔中又分为“花灯调、杂调、本调”三类?;ǖ频鞯摹扒咳跚俊比淖拥?,节奏丰富,别具特色;杂调琅琅上口,易于流行;本调分“普通调”和“平调”两种,系大戏的主要声腔。新腔板式更为丰富,能适应剧情需要,表现喜、怒、哀、乐,以渲染剧情,营造气氛?;ǖ葡贩浅V厥哟蚧骼值呐浜?,有其自己的花灯锣鼓经100多条。

  在舞美服饰上,万载花灯戏简洁夸张,极富美感。人物脸谱活泼自由,如小丑脸谱,视剧情不同,可画上蜻蜓、青蛙、蝴蝶、元宝、秤钩等不同图案,显得生动自然、幽默风趣。

  多项基本功塑造鲜活人物

  万载花灯戏极富地方味和人情味,形成了鲜明的艺术风格。其语言生动朴实,唱词通俗易懂,音乐旋律优美,表演载歌载舞,始终保持着灯彩歌舞的艺术形态。其基本功数“扇、帕、步”三功尤为重要。据当地老艺人介绍:“扇功圆成球,帕花要耍成红石榴?!卑唇巧?,小旦扇要圆,小丑扇要花,小生扇要活。帕功是旦角的主要基本功之一,视剧情需要,可耍成顶盘式、打伞式、飞碟式、旋转式等。步功有旦步、丑步、公子步之分。

  还有一些基本功成为了演艺绝招,如板凳功、棍子功、耍伞、?;ü?、耍秤砣、撒稻草等。万载花灯戏含“生、旦、净、末、丑”等行当,每个行当有“喜、怒、哀、乐、爱、恶、忧”之“七情之色”。每个角色以“手、眼、身、发、步”来塑造人物性格,表现内在情感。

  《孟姜女》创造剧团出场纪录

  新中国成立后,为抢救这一剧种,当地成立了专业剧团,在编、导、演、音乐、舞美、灯光、音响、服装、道具等各个方面都得到了很大发展和提高,上演剧目200多台,自创本戏20多个,自创小戏60多个。

  其中,1980年,当地排演的大型古装花灯戏《孟姜女》在省内外累计演出400多场,场场暴满,创造了剧团单个剧目演出场数最高纪录。1999年,万载花灯戏入编《中国戏曲志·江西卷》,万载花灯戏音乐入编《中国戏曲音乐集成·江西卷》。2008年5月,经江西省人民政府批准,万载花灯戏被列入第二批省级非物质文化遗产名录。

编辑:钟雅欢
客家新闻网版权所有 互联网新闻信息服务许可证号:3612013001 ICP备案/许可证号:赣ICP备05000929号-1
关于本网 联系电话:0797-8101732 新闻宣传质量监督电话/违法和不良信息举报电话:0797-8101732
客家新闻网版权所有
互联网新闻信息服务许可证号:3612013001