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吉安灯彩:经久不衰的传统民俗舞蹈

2017-09-19 15:08  来源:综合网络

  吉安灯彩是广泛流行并富有群众性的一种自娱性的表演形式的传统民俗舞蹈,它是吉安农村每年元宵节的传统活动节目,也是吉安民间闹元宵的主要娱乐活动。

  灯舞的群众性、娱乐性,仅这一民间舞蹈艺术经久不衰,至今仍以其地方特色和乡土气息,熠熠闪光。全市所辖13县市区均有分布,万安县志》方兴志风俗卷中记载:自唐宋以来,万安就有元宵玩灯的风俗?!霸辜?,群执歌舞,曼声唱之”,“十五日夜,扮灯者,极热闹?!薄堵晗刂尽罚ㄇ】瘫荆┮布窃兀骸霸蛴械平诿?,然古人每记螯山诸灯彩,不见于邑惟龙盛行,尤首最丽,尾次之,厥身长短不等。短者舞以七九人,长者舞以娄十人,之时夭矫如生,有能者献珠于前,迎合之巧,珠几为龙吞?!比欢?,浩瀚的历史长河,虽然没有更多的文字记载吉安市民间舞蹈的渊源,但植根于劳动人民中的艺术,仍以其顽强的表现力,繁衍流传。从众多的民间老艺人之口,旁征博引,众口铄金,不难看出吉安市民间舞蹈的历史,主要源于明清现代。

  吉安灯彩遍布吉安市城镇乡村,尤以吉水、万安、遂川、泰和、青原、吉安等县区为甚。在在渊源流长的赣文化中占有十分重要的地位,是江西省吉安市非物质文化遗产?;さ闹氐阆钅?,一是与民间节日、祭祀活动紧密相关,蕴含着浓郁的民俗色彩;二是表现了强悍不屈、奋发向上的庐陵先贤遗风和精神;三是讲究整体造型美,制作上力求精巧,融竹艺、剪纸、彩绘和光源于一体;四是选用了极富地方色彩的伴奏(唱)音乐。吉安灯彩主要分为灯舞和龙舞两部分。

  灯舞

  吉安市的各种形式的灯舞,或制作精巧,造型别致;或异彩纷呈,气势壮观,大致可分为两类:一类是观赏灯,一类是圆场灯。观赏灯有莲花灯、桥灯、吊丝灯、走曾灯、瓶灯、蚌灯、鱼灯、凤凰灯、青蛙灯、螃蟹灯、游灯、花灯、座灯、行灯、西瓜灯、白菜灯、皮灯、罗车灯、字牌灯、蝴蝶灯、擎、台角等。观赏灯其内容没有具体的情节和含义,主要是烘托气势,制造气氛,展开大型灯会表演的场面。圆场灯有鲤鱼灯、虾蚣灯、麒麟狮象灯、鳌鱼灯、股子等。圆场灯是表演性的灯舞,它有内容有意义,表达一定的故事情节,表现人们的美好意愿和向往,理想和追求,表现了人们对生活的热爱。

  观赏灯和圆场灯,大都是在春节期间和元宵节期间,伴随龙、狮舞一道活动,组成大型的灯会或组成一定的场面。如吉水县金滩乡的灯会和永丰县藤田乡老圩村的灯会,在旧社会是以姓氏家族出灯表演,现时都以姓氏和自然村为单位出灯,传统形式和现代意识的结合,使民间艺术富于了新的含义。

  观赏灯。主要是用竹篾、彩纸、麻绳等材料制作而成。灯型大多是花、虫、鸟、兽。这种灯,在制作时,需要有较高的结扎技艺和裱糊技术,才能眉须毕显,栩栩如生地再现花、虫、鸟、兽的形态。一个灯,在制作完成后,不仅能烘托龙舞、狮舞的表演,更重要的是它的观赏价值,堪称上是工艺品。这些观赏灯,在举行灯会时,往往排列在龙、狮的前列,起着引路开道的作用,在表演时,巡场游弋,则起着划场圈地,编排造型和队列,使整个灯队多至数十人或百十人,队列壮观,色彩斑斓。那莲花灯,洁白而纯真,出污泥而不染;那字牌灯,上书斗大方字,或“紫气东南”,或“吉泰平安”;那蝴蝶灯,振动薄翼,翩翩起舞……更有那吊丝灯,实是绝妙。在一根长棍上,用篾和纸扎糊成一座精美的多层戏台,分为上下五层,每层都有一台戏的人物。戏中的人或物通过用线操纵,能左右摆动。台角,更令人击节称妙。由八人抬着一个特制的四方台,台上坐着几个五、六岁的孩童,装扮成民间神话故事中的人物。特别令人惊叹的是,坐在下面的人物持一把隐蔽在衣袖中的大剪刀,剪刀尖上放着一只小凳子,上面还要坐一个小孩。由于剪刀隐蔽,给出人以空中合阁之威

  圆场灯灯型也是以花、虫、鸟、兽为主。表演上,则模拟其所表现动物的生活习性和动作,变幻成各种花节。无论是闻名遐迩的鲤鱼灯,还是虾蚣灯、麒麟狮象灯、鳌鱼灯,在表演上共同的特点,都是靠表演者来操纵手中的道具,再现各种灯饰的风貌。

  龙舞

  龙舞是吉安市极为普及盛行的民间舞蹈,几乎乡乡村村都有舞龙的习惯。种类主要有布龙、箍俚龙、板凳龙。龙舞在我市流传已久,各县、市的地方志都有简略的记载。作为具有人民性的民间艺术的龙舞,反映了劳动群众的愿望和企盼,因此,对于龙的形象的塑造,也就形意而合,颇具匠心,或气势昂扬;或小巧玲珑;或华彩状观;或秀色纤细。丰富的艺术想象结合民间手工艺人的结扎技艺,使龙的形象栩栩如生,丰彩多姿。

  布龙。这是以一条染色的,画有鳞片的布连缀龙的头、身、尾部而名的,它的制作是,用竹篾编扎成龙的头、尾,表面糊上绵纸或蒙上纱布,用彩色纸和颜料贴绘成龙形,并贴上金银纸箔。身部为一长圆形竹篓,竹篓缚在一根长约五尺的木棍上端、篓与篓之间依靠龙衣串连,间隔六尺左右,组成龙身。龙的长度以组成龙身的节数多少而定。表演者手持龙的头、尾、身部的木棍而舞。流传于我区的布龙,有“三节龙”、“五节龙”、“七节龙”、“九节龙”,还有多达三十一节、五十一节、二百一十一节的“长龙“。龙为几节,就由几人表演。

  箍俚龙。这是以上千个直径为一尺七寸的竹篾箍(竹圈),用麻绳串联成龙身而得名的。龙头、龙尾的扎编与布龙大体相同,龙身是每隔七、八尺处装一木把,连头带尾十一把,长约七丈有余。在竹篾箍组成的龙身上,要粘贴上黄色或红色的鳞片(用蜡光纸做成鱼鳞状),再在龙脊背上(麻绳连结处)贴上一绿一红的彩纸为“龙筋”。箍俚龙分成两种,一种为观赏性,如“彩龙”。另一种是利用篾箍与篾箍之间的弹性,摆出各种造型和字型。它表演的特点:轻、缓、细、密。步法以“小碎步”为主。穿花时则用“小跑步”。舞龙尾者则多成半蹲状态,随龙头而行。龙头、身、尾在速度止,高度上都要配合默契,合龙浑然一体,在穿花、摆字、造型时能连贯自如。表演的花节有“巡场”、“单穿花”、“双穿花”、“摆字”、“绕柱”、“盘五”、“咬尾”等。每舞一花节之前都要做一次“咬尾”动作。

  板凳龙。这是在一条板凳的两端,一端扎龙头,一端扎龙尾而得名的,龙的头尾有的是用篾扎纸糊的,有的是用稻草扎成的。舞动时,龙头的一端由两人各持一条板凳脚,龙尾随龙头而转,龙头往右转时,持龙者用左手持,反之,用右手。三人同时将板凳举起,或上下滚动,或左右绕转,或从中穿过。板凳龙小巧玲珑,场地不限,高超技艺的舞蹈者甚至可以在方桌上舞。这是一种比较简便的自娱形式。

  龙舞的不同形式,决定了不同的风格。布龙的动作粗犷彪悍,气势雄浑,舞龙的节奏明快,朴实简烁。箍俚龙的动作稳健庄重,组合严谨。板凳龙敏捷灵巧,翻滚自如。不同的风格,除与不同道具的使用所产生的不同效果有密切关系外,主要是流行地区群众的欣赏兴趣,性格民情,生活习惯,劳动方式和地理环境等因素对舞蹈风格特点所产生的潜在影响。一方水土养一方人,就是这个原因的直接解释。龙舞一般都在春节期间或元宵期间的活动。它由群众自发组成,在过去或由一姓氏家族组成,在本村和邻近村寨表演,或穿屋上堂,或游弋村巷坪场,表示祝贺。舞队的组成有二种情况:一种是小型的,只有龙队和伴奏的锣鼓;一种是大型的,除龙队外,还有狮舞、灯舞、彩莲般、蚌壳舞、花灯等一些民间艺术形式以及武术表演者一道参加。这些龙队每到一处,群众都放鞭炮迎接,有的还以茶食款待,甚至送“红包”酬谢。在旧社会的宗族矛盾冲突时,也有利用舞龙,“踩地界”,壮家族声威。

  各种龙舞都有各自的表演程式,有的出外表演对要在家族祠堂举行叩拜仪式;有的要由村里德高望重的长辈送龙。但共同之处,一是大多数龙舞在表演时都在龙珠(或鲤鱼)的引导下活动,当变换花节动作时,要不龙珠的指挥而变;二是在每个花节动作做完之后,要有一段缓冲的悠扬动作和走圆场,以便衔接下一个花节动作,三是舞龙通常在场子地上表演,为了让四周观众都能看到,往往每套动作要做两至四个方向(或上或下,或东南西北向)。舞龙在兴头时,舞者要高声吼叫以振威,约会者要燃掷鞭炮以助威称快。 灯彩历史悠久,远在唐、宋、明、清时,吉安就盛行龙灯、狮灯、蚌壳灯、虾蚣灯、采莲灯。

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