S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S

客家围屋 再不?;ぞ涂床坏搅?

2017-08-23 15:28  来源:深圳商报

  龙田世居位于坪山区坑梓街道田段心社区。建于清道光十七年(1840年),占地5000平方米,是坪山目前保存最为完整的客家围龙屋之一。(资料图片)

  “1979年,那是一个春天,有一位老人在中国的南海边画了一个圈……”你以为深圳真的是从小渔村神话般兴起的一座不夜城?不,你该去看看深圳那些散落在坪山坑梓、龙岗、宝安的客家围屋。这些围屋会用两三百年的历史告诉你,深圳不是一座只有三十多年的经济特区发展史的年轻移民城市(据考古发现,深圳的人类活动历史可追溯到6700年前)。

  现存围屋大多整体保存完整,恢弘大气,堪称精美。然而,围屋中也有部分已经杂草丛生、闲置破败,随时有坍塌的可能。

  面对深圳客家围屋的现状,深圳商报与一批文化学者、建筑设计师、民俗学家等曾向社会发出?;さ暮羯?。这些呼声在年轻人中得到了积极响应。8月12日,一批年轻人以“设计与生活”城市小旅活动完成集结,带上草帽浩浩荡荡到坑梓围屋去串门。这些年轻人,大多为90后,他们当中有建筑师、插画师、摄影师、白领、教师,还有在读大学生、外国人等。他们要用“新移民”的身份追寻深圳的历史文化之根,去参与遗产资源?;さ奶致?。

  客家围屋里的传说

  深圳在建立特区前56%人口为客家人,有几个姓氏:龙岗罗、坪地萧、观澜陈、坪山曾、坑梓黄。而坑梓黄,是其中的大姓,一度发展到占坑梓人口的80%??滴?0年,坑梓黄氏祖先自惠东迁移至此。沿着阿婆叫沥和大沥两条河流,分布着黄氏两百年间所建造的许多围屋,其中包括16座大型客家围屋,62处文物单位,这些围屋在无声之间记载了坑梓黄数代人的发展史。

  本次参观的围屋分别为黄氏在不同时期建立的青排世居、长隆世居、廻龙世居和龙田世居。主办方深圳市城市设计促进中心协同深圳市土木再生城乡营造研究所,请到了深圳客家文化研究专家张卫东、刘丽川伉俪及围屋后人讲解围屋历史。两位学者是最早一批研究深圳客家历史文化的学者,至今已有二十余年。

  一行人先到达青排世居。它由坑梓黄氏六祖奇义公建于清嘉庆、道光年间,占地面积为8086平方米,是当天走访的最大一座围屋。它的形制很特别,和其他一般围屋一条中轴线的情况不同,它具有两条中轴线,显得非常有意思。学者张卫东现场介绍说,这和奇义公有两房妻室有关。张卫东娓娓道来:“小老婆据说是丫鬟扶正,并且在家庭地位上和大房平起平坐,并争取到一条中轴线?!?/p>

  其实客家围堡还有许多传说轶事。这些掌门人总能如数家珍:五世祖廷元公在到达金沙这一地方时,这一带的地块都被其他姓氏占据了,廷元公凭借着聪明才智一点点把地买回来,建成长隆世居。六世祖奇纬公为建立龙田世居,卖了在香港半条街的物业。而将每个世居世祖的故事串联起来,将是一本丰厚的坑梓客家家族发展史。张卫东指着围屋门边上的楹联现场介绍,战国时期著名的“四公子”之一的春申君黄歇、二十四孝之一的黄香都是坑梓黄的先人。围屋的正门以及祠堂门口往往贴有楹联,如果你想了解客家人的历史,这些楹联是不错的切入口。

  不复原貌的旧日辉煌

  记者随后走访了坑梓黄在不同时期建起的长隆世居、廻龙世居、龙田世居,几个世居相距并不太远,各有特色。其中龙田世居以高大宏伟、英姿逼人的气势给记者留下了深刻的印象。

  刘丽川现场介绍,龙田世居建于清朝道光十七年,占地5000平方米,三合土夯实而成。和其他世居半月池在前不同,它三面环水形成护城河。从远处看,龙田世居半圆形的河岸与外墙就像一只千年老龟背蛰伏其上,这在各地围屋中相当少见。龙田世居在当时可谓“豪宅”,形制高大,龙厅和望楼有四层之高,给人不可高攀之感。

  龙田世居内有雕梁画栋,外有石砖累砌而成的菱形屋檐,四个方位建有具备军事功能的角楼。角楼两侧为镬耳形风火山墙,山墙顶端有形似叉子的避雷针装置。此外,围屋四周的上方有走马廊,遇到外来侵犯者,可以立刻“调兵遣将”。后方一排房子,居中位置是龙田世居的私塾,可见客家人对文教之重视。整个世居坐北向南位于花园中间,前有宽敞的禾坪及与围河相通的池塘。在花园中信步缓行,两百年的历史幻化成斑驳树影。清风徐来,令人迷醉。

  其实客家围屋远远不止这几座,近三百年来在深圳东部土地上涌现出数以百计的方形客家围堡。如今,从这些不复原貌的世居里,仍让人可窥旧日的辉煌。

  刘丽川、张卫东把深圳客家称为滨??图?。他们在继承和发扬客家人重视耕读文化基础上,亦相当重视和发展本地商业,可谓“士农工商”并举。同时,他们淡泊神灵,不拘旧礼,移风易俗,最终完成家族日益雄厚的经济基础。这被两位学者称之为滨??图业奈幕厣?。深圳客家围屋,承载了深圳一段珍贵的古代移民历史。张卫东指出,深圳客家文化在今日深圳文化发展战略中有重要地位和价值,可以帮助重构深圳近代史,把深圳人培育成具有文化自觉、文化自信的新人。

  现存围屋大多整体保存完整,恢弘大气,堪称精美。然而,围屋中也有部分已经杂草丛生、闲置破败,随时有坍塌的可能。

  围屋修缮工作刻不容缓

  即便大多数围屋恢弘大气、精美绝伦、保存完整,但由于历史久远,一部分围屋局部失修,面临随时倒塌的可能,另外也普遍存在闲置破败的现象。

  一位细心的“草帽侠”在龙田世居的祠堂看到,祠堂正中的桌子底下有一条被洪水浸泡的“水位线”,约10公分高。掌门人解释,不远处的深汕高速在修建时,破坏了围屋地下的排水道,导致下雨时雨水倒灌无法排泄。

  记者在多个围屋看到,地面大多青草丛生,门框损毁,几处屋檐存在严重倒塌的现象。廻龙世居掌门人告诉记者,屋檐的维修牵一发动全身,可能全片围屋都需要一起修缮,但是修缮经费相当高,希望政府能够提供支持。

  与依靠政府力量相比,坑梓黄氏后人黄先生对记者说到,族人自行筹资也可以实现修复。他参与了自家世居的重修工作,全部花费不到100万,这个数字对于家族人众的黄氏不成问题。值得一提的是,62处文物单位中仅3处为定级?;さノ?,其他均为未定级不可移动文物,其修复工作的合法性问题至今仍存在争议,对于如何修缮也缺乏相关依据。

  事实上,围屋?;な贾沾嬖谠∶窀鋈苏爻鞘谢蟮牟ü槭粑侍??;疃旆缴钲谑型聊驹偕窍缬煅芯克呒堆芯吭崩盍柙票硎?,现有的《文物?;しā匪淙欢远段奈锏男奚杀;び邢晗覆?,但对于更大范围的“未定级”文物的修缮方式方法没有详细流程规范,只表述为鼓励原住民自行维修。而原住民自行修缮和城市规划和管理办法存在一定矛盾,或造成文保部门批文同意维修,土地执法部门当做违建进行查违的事情发生。(深圳商报记者刘娥)

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