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重建乡贤文化 推进乡风文明
来源:客家新闻网-赣南日报    2017-06-07 09:54
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重建乡贤文化 推进乡风文明

□华文逸

  “记得住乡愁”,是习近平总书记建设“美丽中国”念兹在兹的世纪话题。当我们徜徉于乡村旷野,目之所及,一方面,拔节成长得越来越像城镇的农村,硬生生切割了游子缕缕的乡愁,阻隔了人们回乡的脚步。另一方面,出现越来越多残垣断壁的“空心房”“空心村”,乡村留住的大部分是老人、小孩。乡村一些公序良俗被世风侵蚀模糊乃至消解殆尽,风俗不淳,邻里不宁,乡风自然不清不明。

  “乡愁去哪了?”“故乡在哪里?”

  在人们诸如此类追问的背后,一个不容置疑的事实就是:乡愁本质上就是一种文化,文化是乡愁的根和灵魂,而乡土文化的逐步消失,其实质是乡贤文化的断裂。在我国步入信息文明时代,乡村“再使风俗淳”,最根本的就是要重视以人为本,融合中华优秀传统文化,吸纳现代人类文明成果,重建乡贤文化,接续乡村文脉,让销魂蚀骨的乡愁绵绵不绝,让游子无论走多久多远,心底都有一个丰盈灵动的家乡。

  乡贤文化是中华优秀传统文化的重要组成部分,是濡养乡愁的精神脐带和血脉胎盘。文化的活力和生命有赖于顶天立地的人。无法体现人的精气神的文化,是无法传承的,是注定要寿终正寝的。五千年的历史长河,我们中华文化之所以在一次次民族融合中不断茁壮成长,就是秉持了“人本”这个核心,并且始终勿忘初心,勇于爬坡过坎,得以行稳致远。数千年的中国乡村,历经无数次战火兵燹,仍然保持宁静祥和的稳定姿态,端赖生生不息的乡贤,把文化薪火相传,把乡风文明传承。他们无论走到哪里,居庙堂之高抑或处江湖之远,功成名就之时,曲终人散之际,基本上都是“少小离家老大回”,告老还乡兴办书塾,讲经布道,启蒙教化,惠泽乡梓,从而形成独具中国特色的乡贤文化。如果没有代代接力的乡贤和他们创造的乡贤文化,中国农村“耕读传家,诗书继世”的精神血脉就早已断裂,更不会有延续千年的“乡愁记忆”。

  乡愁是什么?对游子来说,可能是永不改变的乡音,是少小年华桂花树下数星星,是学堂朗朗书声,可能是水口岸坡上的一棵树,河边青青草,稻花香里听蛙声,抑或是看天上悠闲自在的白云……当我们远在他乡无法排解乡愁的那一刻,乡愁已经不期而至。灵魂失去了栖息场所和心里容不下乡愁的游子,这种人其实已经是“空心人”。

  “记得住乡愁”,是当下对过去城镇化一度泛滥无度无序的反拨和矫正,是修复和延续乡村文脉的诗意呼唤。乡村不再是意境明朗的水墨丹青,而是越来越像一幅色彩斑斓刺眼的西洋油画。党的十六届五中全会提出建设“生产发展、生活宽裕、乡风文明、村容整洁、管理民主”的社会主义新农村以来,十多年的实践探索,虽然乡村的外在形象已经变了几回脸,但由于大量人口流向城镇,乡村精神和价值层面的“乡风文明”却如高山氧气越来越稀薄,甚至一些农村薄养厚葬、赌博成风、高价彩礼等粗俗陋习盛行,以及出现田园荒芜、溪流污浊、河床干涸等生态失衡现象,根本原因就是维护乡村社会稳定的自治职能弱化,规范人们行为举止的伦理道德秩序淡化,崇尚天人合一、自然和谐的文化理念丢失。我们长期以来忽视乡贤人才,在新农村建设过程中重物质轻灵魂,见物不见人,到头来只能是乡村文化的日渐式微,乡村特有的原生态、原汁味也就逐步消散。

  新时代的乡贤文化应该坚持以社会主义核心价值观为内核,摒弃传统文化糟粕,传承优秀文化精华,建立体现德治与法治结合,传统与现代融合,最终实现村民自治的文化范式,切忌搞成食古不化的翻版,或者是变形走样的“哈哈镜”。二十四字社会主义核心价值观,集中体现了中华民族孜孜以求的家国梦想,人类社会奋斗不息的价值追求,现代公民努力追寻的义利遵循,这就是我们所需要的立足当前、着眼长远的文化底色。

  建设新时代的乡贤文化,既要融合中华优秀传统文化和社会主义核心价值观这个我们时代精神的菁华,更要积极探索,以改革创新的办法来培养新时期的乡村贤达,从而让先进的文化种子在乡村生根发芽、开花结果?!疤镌敖吆还椤?。人们精神家园的荒芜比土地山林的荒芜影响更长久,后果更严重。因此要突出以人为本这个核心,均衡农村教育资源,改善文化生活环境,让城镇优秀教师下得去,让农村孩子留得住,让人们愿意回归乡村,让乡村充满人气和生命张力,从而培育新时代的乡贤文化,引领中国乡村走向新的千年。其次,要加快改革农村土地流转制度,鼓励和吸引已经“离乡离土”的社会贤达回乡居住,从事教育、文化服务,这样假以时日,乡贤文化才能真正落地生根,传承光大。再次,充分用好国家文化创新改革的综合政策,结合戏剧、电影等文化下乡进村,发挥文化绩效的正向和文化志愿者的积极作用,建设一支群众信任拥护、引领社会风尚、传承先进文化的新时代乡贤队伍。

  每一个村庄都应有一批在自己的园地精耕细作的贤达,每一个历史时代都应有顺应民情民意、合乎世道人心的文化表述。唯有如此,我们广袤的乡村大地才能将忠诚、孝敬、明礼、公义、廉耻等传统文化传承接续,而且始终做到与时代同步、与国家同向、与民族同力,与世界同声。果能如此,我们中华儿女无论行走多远,都永远记得住“心中的乡愁”。

 ?。ㄗ髡叩ノ唬夯岵匚墓阈戮郑?/p>


编辑:刘秋妤
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